Jar Jar Binks was a Gungan military officer and politician during the waning days of the Galactic Republic. His clumsy behavior had, at one point in his life, led to his exile from Gungan society, but he was welcomed back by his people following his efforts during the Trade Federation invasion of Naboo. Binks aided Qui-Gon Jinn and Obi-Wan Kenobi in their rescue of Naboo's queen, Padmé Amidala and, with Amidala and the Jedi, traveled off-world to Tatooine and Coruscant, before returning to liberate his planet from the Federation. Upon his return, Binks helped to forge an alliance between the Gungans and the Naboo, ending years of mistrust. For his efforts, he was promoted to Bombad General and served in the Gungan Grand Army during the battle for Naboo.
In the years that followed, Binks became a Junior Representative for his people in the Galactic Senate, serving alongside Amidala when she became Senator of Naboo. The emerging political crisis between the Galactic Republic and the Confederacy of Independent Systems saw Amidala, an outspoken critic of a military build-up, become a target for assassination. Amidala went into hiding, leaving Binks to speak for Naboo in the Senate. The Gungan was manipulated by Supreme Chancellor Sheev Palpatine, who was secretly the Sith Lord Darth Sidious, into proposing that the Senate give the Chancellor emergency powers that would allow him to create an army to combat the Separatists. This act led to the creation of the army deployed by the Republic during the Clone Wars, a war engineered by Palpatine himself to amass total control over the Republic.
During the war, Binks served in diplomatic roles, such as in the mission to recruit Toydaria as a supply staging base to aid the Twi'leks on Ryloth. He later helped rescue Queen Julia of Bardotta, a friend. By the end of the Clone Wars, Binks was present in the Senate when Palpatine transformed the Republic into the Galactic Empire, thereby refashioning the Galactic Senate into an Imperial Senate. Shortly afterward, Binks attended Senator Amidala's funeral in Theed.
The Invasion of NabooEdit
Boss Nass banished Jar Jar Binks from his home of Otoh Gunga, an underwater city that lay beneath the Mid Rim planet of Naboo's Lake Paonga, for crashing his personal heyblibber submarine. During the time of the Trade Federation's invasion of Naboo, Binks was out foraging for food when he stumbled across OOM-9's invasion force. Panicking, he bumped into the Jedi Master Qui Gon Jinn, an ambassador who had been sent to resolve the crisis between the Naboo and the Federation. Jinn saved the Gungan from being run over by a passing Multi Troop Transport. As a result of this life-saving act, Binks believed that he owed Jinn a life debt and insisted on following Jinn, much to the Jedi's annoyance. Both Jinn and his apprentice, Obi-Wan Kenobi, needed to contact Queen Padmé Amidala in the capital Theed, but had no way of reaching her. Despite fearing for his life, Binks reluctantly agreed to take them there.
Upon reaching Otah Gunga, Binks was arrested by his old friend Tarpals and brought before Boss Nass, the city's ruler. Since he had unlawfully returned to his home city, Binks faced punishment. However, Master Qui-Gon, who needed a guide to take them to Naboo's capital Theed, convinced Boss Nass to commute Bink's punishment; stating that the Gungan owed him a "life debt." Nass reluctantly complied and provided them with a bongo submarine to travel through the planet's watery planetary core. After two narrow escapades with an Opee sea killer and a Colo claw fish, Binks and his companions managed to reach Theed only to discover that the city had already been occupied by Trade Federation forces.
After Master Qui-Gon and his Padawan Kenobi managed to free Queen Amidala and several of her entourage, Binks and his companions fled aboard a Naboo Royal Starship. Despite escaping the Trade Federation's naval blockade, the Royal Starship sustained damage to its hyperdrive; forcing them to land on the desert planet of Tatooine. This marked Binks' first trip offworld. Later, Binks joined the two Jedi and Amidala when they disembarked from the cruiser to visit Mos Espa to obtain spareparts. They tried to buy the spareparts from a Toydarian dealer named Watto but ran into an unexpected problem when Watto refused to accept their Republic Credits.
While returning back to their starship, Binks was accosted by a local Dug podracer named Sebulba; who was angered when Binks accidentally ruined his meal by spitting out the leg of a Gorg rather than pay for it. A local human boy named Anakin Skywalker defended Binks and offered the Gungan and his companions shelter at his family home; where he lived with his mother Shmi and his protocol droid C-3PO. Binks and his companions learnt that Anakin and his mother were slaves and that the boy wanted to compete in the upcoming Bonta Eve podracing event.
Later, Master Qui-Gon made a bargain with Watto to sell him the spareparts and free Anakin if the boy won the Boonta Eve race; Qui-Gon had also discovered that Anakin was Force-sensitive and decided to train him as a Jedi. Despite a challenging race, Anakin won the Boonta event and Watto reluctantly supplied the spareparts and freed Anakin. Bink's trip to Tatooine marked his first time offworld and his first encounter with Skywalker. After making the necessary repairs to Queen Amidala's starship, Binks and his traveling companions traveled to the galactic capital Coruscant. Following a failed attempt to get the Galactic Senate to end the suffering of her people, Amidala turned to Binks; who revealed that the Gungans had a Grand Army.
Armed with this information, Queen Amidala and her Jedi protectors traveled back to Naboo. Binks visited Otoh Gunga only to discover that his people had evacuated to a Sacred Place. After leading them there, Queen Amidala convinced the Gungans to put aside their difference and join forces with the Naboo to oust the Trade Federation's droid army. Boss Nass agreed and subsequently promoted Binks to the position of Bombad General. During the Battle of Naboo, General Binks led the Gungan Grand Army against the Federation's droid army at the Great Grass Plains. The droid army overwhelmed the Bink's forces and forced them to surrender. However, defeat was snatched from the jaws of victory when Skywalker destroyed the Droid Control Ship orbiting Naboo; disabling the Federation's droid forces on Naboo.
The Separatist CrisisEdit
Ten years after the Naboo crisis, Jar Jar Binks had ascended to the position of Representative in the Naboo delegation to the Galactic Senate. He rose to prominence after the-now Senator Padmé Amidala was forced to go into hiding after a series of assassination attempts on Coruscant. At the request of Amidala, Representative Binks agreed to stand in for her in the Senate. In her absence, however, Binks was easily manipulated by more experienced politicians, and as they preyed on his innocence, they convinced him that the creation of a Grand Army of the Republic was a course of action that Amidala would have taken. In fact, the creation of an army was exactly what Amidala had been fighting against. Feeling that it was his duty to act in her stead, he suggested that the Senate give the-now Supreme Chancellor Palpatine the emergency powers required to create the Grand Army of the Republic. The motion passed, and soon afterwards, with the Battle of Geonosis, the Clone Wars began.
The Clone WarsEdit
Mission to ToydariaEdit
Following the Separatist invasion of Ryloth, Representative Binks traveled to the planet Toydaria with the Alderaanian Senator Bail Organa to ask King Katuunko for permission to use the planet as a supply staging base for Republic forces to relieve Ryloth. Their negotiations with King Katuunko were complicated by the presence of the Trade Federation's Senator Lott Dod, who managed to convince the King to deny the Republic access to Toydaria's facilities on the grounds that such military activity would violate the planet's strict policy of neutrality. In private however, Katuunko was sympathetic to the plight of the Twi'leks of Ryloth and agreed to load Senator Organa's ship with provisions if the Senator could conceal Toydaria's involvement. While Binks distracted Senator Dod during a banquet, Organa loaded his ship with supplies for Ryloth. Following this event, the King announced that he would reconsider his government's policy of neutrality.
Negotiations on RodiaEdit
Later, Representative Binks accompanied Senator Amidala and C-3PO on a mission to Rodia to ensure the planet's allegiance to the Republic. Senator Amidala was a close friend of the Rodian Senator Onaconda Farr, whom she referred to affectionately as "Uncle Ono." However, Senator Farr had already made a deal with the Separatist leader Nute Gunray, who offered to deliver food supplies to Rodia in return for securing the planet's allegiance. Senator Amidala was promptly taken prisoner by Gunray who wanted to execute her.
Binks tried to communicate with some jungle natives, and in response, a fruit was flung at C-3PO. Shortly later, Binks and C-3PO were attacked by several Separatist B1 battle droids and a crab droid. While attempting to escape, Binks accidentally destroyed Amidala's yacht with a magnetic crane; ruining their chance to contact for help. He donned a Jedi robe Amidala had stored in her back closet, which led the droids to mistake him for a Jedi. While fleeing the Separatist droids, Binks fell down a grate which led to the sea. Meanwhile, C-3PO was captured and thought that Binks had died.
After escaping a Kwazel Maw, Binks attempted to rescue Amidala only to discover that she had already escaped. Later, Binks caught up with Amidala only to be spotted by a B2 super battle droid. Fleeing underwater to escape the droid's thermal detonators, he encountered the Kwazel Maw again but managed to befriend the creature, which he nicknamed "Bogey". Together with Boogie, the two of them rescued Senator Amidala and C-3PO and defeated Nute Gunray's battle droids. Shortly later, Republic reinforcements arrived on Rodia and arrested Nute Gunray. Senator Farr revealed that his collaboration with the Separatists was only a ruse to trap Gunray. Despite their efforts, Gunray later escaped Republic custody with the aid of the bounty hunter Asajj Ventress and the traitorous Senate Commando Argyus.
Dealing with PiratesEdit
After the Separatist leader Count Dooku was captured by a Weequay pirate gang led by Hondo Ohnaka, the Republic agreed to pay a hefty sum as a reward for capturing the Sith Lord. Representative Binks along with the Gran Senator Kharrus were dispatched to the Weequay pirates' lair with a bounty of spice as ransom for Count Dooku. However, one of the pirates, Turk decided to deal with the Separatists and shot down the shuttle carrying Binks and Kharrus. The pilots and Kharrus were killed during the ensuing crash; leaving Representative Binks in command of the surviving Clone troopers.
Binks and the survivors managed to evade pursuit by Turk and his men by hiding near several acid geysers. While his Clone charges wanted to wait for more reinforcements, Binks decided to fight back against the pirates. He succeeded in taming several skalders and managed to defeat Turk and his pirates. They then made their way to the pirate base where Commander Stone sent Binks to "negotiate" with the pirates; knowing that his ineptitude would be useful. Before the pirates could take him hostage, Binks managed to ram one of their tanks into another, shutting down their power grid. The Weequays attempted to kill Binks only to be restrained by the Clone troopers. During the ensuing blackout, Dooku along with the two Jedi Kenobi and Skywalker managed to escape while Turk was killed.
The Blue Shadow Virus CrisisEdit
Following the discovery of several Separatist droids on Naboo, Representative Binks and Senator Amidala along with C-3PO were summoned back to Naboo by Queen Neeyutnee, who demanded that the Republic assist them in eliminating the Separatist presence there. Binks was present when his companions interrogated a captured T-series tactical droid, which had its photoreceptors removed to confuse. Through C-3PO, Binks and his companions learnt that there was a secret laboratory producing some sort of virus. Before they could extract anymore information, Bink's clumsiness destroyed the droid.
Despite this setback, Binks noticed a blue bug emerging from the tactical droid's body. Deducing that the droids came from the Eastern swamps, Binks and Amidala traveled there to continue their investigation. During their travels, they encountered a local Gungan farmer named Peppi Bow who attacked them, believing that Binks and his companions were responsible for the deaths of her herd of shaaks. After Amidala managed to convince Bow that they were not a threat, the farmer informed them that a nearby river was polluted. Binks and his companions then entered a swamp where they found a secret hatch.
Shortly later, they were captured by several Separatist battle droids led by a Faust scientist named Nuvo Vindi. He revealed that the Separatists had a secret laboratory on Naboo and that he had been developing an airborne version of the deadly Blue Shadow Virus. Binks and his companions were later rescued by the Jedi Obi-Wan, Skywalker, and his new Padawan Ahsoka Tano who managed to overpower Dr Vindi and his droids. During the ensuing struggle, Binks and Amidala managed to stop one of Dr Vindi's droids from escaping into Naboo; containing the Blue Shadow Virus within his secret bunker.
Despite capturing Dr Vindi, one of his servant droids LEP-86C8, managed to hide one of the virus bombs and released the virus throughout the facility. The Jedi and the Clone troopers managed to lock down the facility; thus preventing the virus from spreading to the rest of Naboo. While Anakin and Kenobi traveled to the planet Iego to find the antidote Reeksa root, Binks, Amidala, Ahsoka, and the Clone troopers stayed behind to trap Dr Vindi's remaining droids and to prevent them from reaching the surface. During the fighting, Amidala accidentally ripped her envirosuit while tackling Jar Jar to save him from blaster fire; exposing herself to the virus. Fortunately for Binks and his companions, Anakin and Kenobi returned with the antidote. Binks and his companions survived their ordeal in Dr Vindi's laboratory.
War on Mon CalaEdit
Following the assassination of the Mon Calamari King Yos Kolina, tensions broke out between the Mon Calamari and Quarren species, the two dominant species of the ocean world of Mon Cala. The Quarrens regarded Kolina's successor, Prince Lee-Char, as too inexperienced to rule. The Separatist Ambassador, the Karkarodon Riff Tamson, stirred up trouble between the Mon Calamari and Quarren. In response, the Republic sent Senator Amidala and the two Jedi Skywalker and Kit Fisto to mediate between the two parties. With Separatist backing, the Quarren overthrew the Mon Cala Government and waged war against the Mon Calamari and their Republic allies.
The Republic was unable to commit sufficient Clone SCUBA troopers to Mon Cala and decided to dispatch Master Kenobi to seek the help of the Gungans. The Gungans were an amphibious species and they possessed a Grand Army. At Kenobi's urging, Binks successfully convinced the Gungan High Council to send the Grand Army to relieve Republic forces on Mon Cala. Binks and the Gungan reinforcements arrived just in time to render valuable aid to Skywalker, Amidala, and Lee Char. However, the Separatist Commander Tamson counter-attacked by using his Trident-class assault ships to create artificial whirlpools which disoriented the Gungan forces. During the fighting, Binks and the Gungan reinforcements were captured by Tamson's Separatist forces.
Following their defeat, Representative Binks along with Skywalker, Amidala, and Kit Fisto were brought before Commander Tamson, who interrogated them about the whereabouts of Prince Lee Char. During the interrogation, Tamson cracked Amidala's faceplate but Binks was able to seal it with slime generated by his Gungan physiology. Meanwhile, Prince Lee Char and Anakin's Padawan Ahsoka succeeded in freeing the Mon Calamari prisoners and convincing the Mon Calamari and Quarrens to work together to drive out the Separatist invaders. During the ensuing battle, Binks and the other prisoners were rescued while Tamson was killed by Lee Char. Following the end of the fighting, Lee Char was recognized as the new King of Mon Cala by both the Mon Calamari and Quarren species.
Strife on NabooEdit
As the Clone Wars dragged on, tensions grew between the Gungans and Naboo's human population due to rumors that the Gungans were planning to aid a Separatist invasion of the planet. Tensions further escalated when the ruling Boss Lyonie announced that the Gungan Grand Army would march on Theed, the Naboo's capital. In response to escalating tensions, Representative Binks arranged to rendezvous with his old friends Senator Amidala and the Jedi Knight Skywalker at Paonga. From there, they traveled to Otoh Gunga to confront Lyonie. Skywalker discovered that Lyonie was being controlled by a mind-control necklace that had been given by his new Minister Rish Loo, who was secretly in cahoots with Count Dooku.
During a confrontation between Lyonie, the Jedi, and Loo, Binks accidentally donned Lyonie's crown of office; causing Amidala and Skywalker to note his striking resemblance to the Boss. Skywalker then hatched a plan to use Binks, disguised as Boss Lyonie, to command the Grand Army to call off their attack on Theed. Skywalker's plan work but Loo managed to escape. Shortly later, a Separatist landship arrived and addressed Binks, believing him to be Boss Lyonie and thinking that everything was going according to Dooku's plan. Forced to maintain his role, Binks and his old friend General Tarpals boarded the ship to "coordinate the attack" only to discover that the Separatist commander was the cyborg General Grievous.
Flustered and terrified, Jar Jar Binks stalled for time while dispatching Tarpals to inform Amidala of Grievous' presence. At Amidala's advice, the two agreed to shut down the General's droid forces and capture him. Grievous quickly deduced that Lyonie was an impostor but the two Gungans succeeded in disabling the Separatist droid army. The Gungans then attacked Grievous and managed to capture him following a fierce struggle that ended with the death of Tarpals, Bink's best friend. However, the Gungans were forced to release General Grievous after Count Dooku succeeded in luring Skywalker into a trap and holding him ransom. Despite this setback, Binks was praised by both Boss Lyonie and Queen Neeyutnee for restoring peace between the Gungans and the Naboo.
Mission to BardottaEdit
Following the near civil war on Naboo, Representative Jar Jar Binks was called upon by the Galactic Republic to deal with a new crisis on the planet Bardotta. Several Dagoyan Masters had mysteriously disappeared. There was a prophecy that if the Masters were not returned, a great darkness would descend on the planet. Distrusting the Jedi Order for inducting Bardottan children, Queen Julia had requested a special meeting with Binks to discuss the crisis. Despite the Queen's request that Binks travel to Bardotta alone, the Jedi Master Mace Windu suspected something was afoot and accompanied Binks by posing as his servant.
Binks met with the Queen but she was kidnapped during the meeting. In response, the remaining Dagoyan Masters convened the Bahk-tov Council, where High Seneschal Peteen informed them of a prophecy that if the queen was not found within three rotations, she would be gone forever and an era of darkness would descend on the galaxy. Binks and Windu also learnt from another Council member named Savatte that the prophecy originated from the malevolent Frangawl Cult, whose shrine to the demon Malmourral was underneath the Dagoyan temple. While exploring the catacombs below the temple, Binks was captured by a Frangawl cultist, who blew a glowing powder into his face which temporarily made him invisible.
The cult members placed Binks in a cage suspended above a lava pit where he found the other captured Dagoyan masters, who informed him that they were to be sacrificed to Malmourral. Binks managed to contact Master Windu with his comlink and transmit his location. However, the Frangawl cult leader discovered it and had it destroyed. Binks also encountered Julia who revealed that the Frangawl cultists were stealing the Force from the Dagoyan masters. The Frangawl cultists then attempted to sacrifice Binks himself. However, Master Windu arrived and managed to fight off the cult members and free Binks. Unfortunately, the cult leader escaped the planet with the Queen in a starship. In response, Binks vowed to rescue Queen Julia with the help of Master Windu.
While traveling through space, Binks recounted to Master Windu how he had witnessed the cultists sacrificing one of the Dagoyan Masters and extracting the Living Force from his body which they stored in a Living sphere. Based on this information, Windu deduced that the cultists would extract the Living Force from Queen Julia herself and used his Force powers to track her location. Their travels took them to a market square on the moon Zardossa Stix. Amidst the crowd, Binks caught up with the screaming Julia but found himself cornered by several of the cultists. Binks managed to flee his pursuers and tried to pursue the group with the captive Queen. During the ensuing chaos, Windu saved Binks from being gunned down by a cultist armed with an EWHB-12 heavy repeating blaster.
Continuing their pursuit, Binks and Windu were set upon by an animal trainer and his two gundarks. During the fray, the trainer relieved Windu of his lightsaber using his whip. Binks then punched the trainer and retrieved the lightsaber with his tongue, and returned it to the Jedi Master. Windu managed to stun one of the gundarks and to kill the other. Binks continued the pursuit but the cultists escaped in two speeders. After questioning the trainer, Binks and Windu continued their rescue mission on an eopie and dalgo. Meanwhile, the cultists arrived at a Zardossan temple where they were joined by the Nightsister Mother Talzin who wanted to sacrifice Queen Julia in order to steal her Force energy.
After tangling with the temple's Stone guardians, Windu and Binks stormed the temple. While Windu and Mother Talzin fought, Binks used one of the stone guardian's weapons to blast the cult members and to free Queen Julia from her bonds. While Binks grappled with the cult leader, the planets aligned and a beam of energy blasted through a series of lenses. While the cult leader was killed by the blast of energy, Julia managed to push Binks out of harm's way. The Force sphere fell from its pedestal and shattered, releasing a powerful explosion. Binks along with Windu and Julia managed to survive this explosion and escape the temple. Following her rescue, Queen Julia thanked Binks and Windu and expressed hope that these events would lead to better understanding between the Bardottans and the Jedi.
Fall of the RepublicEdit
During the last days of the Galactic Republic, Jar Jar Binks continued to serve as the Gungan Representative on the Naboo delegation. He was alive during the time that the Galactic Republic was transformed by Chancellor Palpatine into the first Galactic Empire. Following the death of his colleague and close friend Senator Amidala, Binks was among the chief mourners attending her funeral along with Boss Nass.
Personality and traitsEdit
Jar Jar Binks was often regarded by his peers as clumsy and annoying, traits which led many people to deride and underestimate him. His clumsiness led to his banishment from his home city of Otoh Gunga. On another occasion, his tendency to grab food with his tongue got him into trouble with a local bully on Tatooine named Sebulba. Despite these flaws, Binks was also capable of being brave, loyal, and dependable. Binks played an important role in turning the tide of the Invasion of Naboo by helping Queen Amidala to win the support of the Gungans in driving out the Trade Federation invaders. Due to his role in the Battle of Naboo, the former Gungan outcast won much respect among both his people and the Naboo.
Despite his good and humble nature, Binks was naive and easily manipulated. Chancellor Palpatine exploited Binks' naivety by convincing him to support the creation of a Grand Army of the Republic; which enabled Palpatine to destroy the Jedi Order and to establish the first Galactic Empire. Binks was also good at making friends as shown by his friendship with Master Qui-Gon Jinn and his success in winning over a Kwazel Maw called "Bogey" during a mission on Rodia. On other occasions, Binks was able to use his humble, unassuming nature to outsmart stronger foes.
Binks was also dependable in the most challenging of situations. On one occasion, Binks displayed courage when he impersonated Boss Lyonie during a mission to stop the Separatists from turning the Gungans against the Naboo. Later, Binks displayed much courage, loyalty, and endurance when he and Mace Windu took part in a dangerous mission to rescue his friend Queen Julia of Bardotta from the malevolent Frangawl Cult. Binks' actions helped to restore relations between the Jedi Order and the Bardottans.
Skills and abilitiesEdit
As a Gungan, Jar Jar Binks was capable of living comfortably both on land and underwater. He had a long tongue which he used for grabbing food and other objects. Binks also knew how to pilot a bongo sub and had a good navigational knowledge of Naboo's watery core. While Binks was not a skilled fighter, he was courageous, loyal, and dependable under even the most difficult circumstances. On one occasion, he used his slime to seal Senator Amidala's damaged faceplate during a mission to Mon Cala; saving her from drowning under the oceans of that watery planet. Binks was also good at communicating with animals as shown when he managed to tame several skalders, beasts of burden which provided him and his clone trooper comrades with transportation.
Behind the scenesEdit
Jar Jar Binks was played by Ahmed Best in the prequel trilogy and The Clone Wars animated series. Viewer response to the character in Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace was deeply negative: Best stated the criticism "hurt me emotionally and it was hard to take at the time, [although] it wasn't debilitating for me. I just put my shoes on and went back to work." In response to the negativity, George Lucas jokingly titled the first draft of Episode II "Jar Jar's Great Adventure."
Template:Quote In William Shakespeare's The Phantom of Menace: Star Wars Part the First, Jar Jar Binks was portrayed as a wise character who played the role of the clown publicly to those such as the Jedi to mask his cunning insights regarding culture and politics. He was cast out from Gungan society for his radical opinions regarding uniting the Gungan culture with that of the humans of Naboo, but maintained to Qui-Gon Jinn that he was ejected due to being "clumsy." While he played the role of the fool, his frequent asides revealed his true nature, and his contempt for those who would to his face refer to him using terms such as "native" or "buffoon." Despite this, he joined with the Jedi in the hopes of obtaining the greater understanding between the two cultures which he sought.
In the LEGO Star Wars: Droid Tales episode "Exit from Endor", Jar Jar Binks is swept into space during the escape from Naboo. Later, in "Gambit on Geonosis", he is seen floating outside the Second Death Star.
- Star Wars: Episode I The Phantom Menace Template:1st
- Star Wars Journeys: The Phantom Menace
- Star Wars: Episode II Attack of the Clones
- Template:TCW Template:Flash
- Star Wars: Episode III Revenge of the Sith
- Disney Infinity 3.0
- William Shakespeare's The Phantom of Menace: Star Wars Part the First
- William Shakespeare's The Clone Army Attacketh: Star Wars Part the Second
- Template:Droid Tales Template:Flash
- Template:Droid Tales Template:Flash
- Star Wars in 100 Scenes
- Ultimate Star Wars
- Star Wars: Absolutely Everything You Need to Know
- Star Wars Character Encyclopedia: Updated and Expanded
- Star Wars: Aliens of the Galaxy
- Template:SW; image #3 Template:C
- Template:Databank; image #19 Template:C
Notes and referencesEdit
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